Vim magic

I’ve been using the vim editor for a while now, and I really like it. But it’s true that the learning curve is very steep. There are so many options, that even after years of using it, you can still discover lots of new tricks.

This is a compilation of my favorite commands. I will keep updating this post in the future whenever I discover new interesting stuff (this is kind of a personal quick reference).

In normal mode

Edition magic

  • vi" Select everything inside ". It also works with parenthesis, brackets, tags…
  • di" Delete everything inside ". Same as before.
  • da" Delete everything inside ", including the surrounding "
  • CTRL+v Start visual mode, selecting columns
  • =<next position> Indent
  • zz Scroll the current line to the center of the window
  • zt Scroll the current line to the top of the window
  • zb Scroll the current line to the bottom of the window
  • cs"' Change the surrounding double quotes by simple quotes (surround.vim is required)
  • /\csearchString Perform a case insensitive search
  • /\CsearchString Perform a case sensitive search

Marks

  • mk mark the current position as k (any other lowercase letter will do)
  • mK mark the current position as K. Uppercase means that it is a global mark, and it will be available even if you currently have a different file opened.
  • 'k jump to the position previously marked as k

Folds

  • zf'k fold lines until the k mark
  • zo open the folded code
  • zc close the folded code
  • za toggle the folded code

Sessions

  • :mks ~/.vim/foo.vim Save the current vim session
  • :source ~/.vim/foo.vim Restore the previously saved session

Tabs

  • gT Go to the previous tab
  • gt Go to the next tab
  • :tabfind <TAB> Find a file with autocompletion and open it in a new tab

Splitting

  • vsplit Split vertically
  • split Split horizontally

Other commands

  • :echo $VIM Show the path to the vimrc configuration file (usually just ~/.vimrc)
  • :!command Run a unix command
  • :!! Swap the selection by the stdout of the last command
  • :e . Open the file explorer on the current directory, in order to edit a file
  • :find *.js <TAB> Find a file with extension .js using autocompletion
  • :b <TAB> Open a file that has been previously opened (and is still in the buffer)
  • :ls List the previously opened files
  • :vert diffs otherfile Diff the current file with otherfile

In edit mode

  • <CTRL>n Autocomplete

Custom settings

These settings can be saved into the vimrc file.

  • syntax on Activate the syntax highlighting
  • set number Show the line numbers
  • set autoindent Autoindentation
  • set path+=** Include subdirectories when finding a file
  • set wildmenu Menu helper when using tab finding files or directories
  • set nocompatible Ignore compatibility with ancient vi versions
  • set smartcase Always perform case insensitive search unless you search for capital letters
  • set wildignore+=**/node_modules/** Ignore directory when finding files

Exporting your configuration

You can save your custom vim configuration to a repository and synchronize it with any other machine.

In order to do that, just initialize your ~/.vim directory as a git repository, and push it to the cloud (e.g.: to GitHub). You can find mine here (follow the instructions on the README in order to set it up).

…and of course

References